The CPU and the PCI devices need to access memory that is shared between them. This memory is used by device drivers to control the PCI devices and to pass information between them. Typically the shared memory contains control and status registers for the device. These registers are used to control the device and to read its status. For example, the PCI SCSI device driver would read its status register to find out if the SCSI device was ready to write a block of information to the SCSI disk. Or it might write to the control register to start the device running after it has been turned on. The CPU's system memory could be used for this shared memory but if it were then every time a PCI device accessed memory, the CPU would have to stall waiting for the PCI device to finish. Access to memory is generally limited to one system component at a time. This would slow the system down. It is also not a good idea to allow the system's peripheral devices to access main memory in an uncontrolled way. This would be very dangerous; a rogue device could make the system very unstable.
Peripheral devices have their own memory spaces which they use. The CPU can access these spaces but access by the devices into the system's memory is very strictly controlled using DMA (Direct Memory Access) channels. ISA devices have access to two address spaces, ISA I/O (Input/Output) and ISA memory. PCI has three; PCI I/O, PCI Memory and PCI Configuration space. All of these address spaces are also accessible by the CPU with the the PCI I/O and PCI Memory address spaces being used by the device drivers and the PCI Configuration space being used by the PCI initialization code within the Linux kernel.